11 Styles of Architecture

Every country, city, and town has its own distinct history, and architecture is the most obvious proof of this. One of the first things that will catch your eye is the architecture of a building. When a structure is aesthetically significant, it becomes a landmark that identifies a city and is visited by visitors from all over the globe. Each building style is assigned a time slot on the timeline. They all have distinct characteristics and patterns that may be seen even after thousands and hundreds of years.

We’ve picked 11 notable architectural styles, each with its own unique characteristics, so you can learn more about them.

 

1. Baroque

Born in Italy at the beginning of the 17th century, this style of architecture design shares some of the same qualities as the renaissance style with light and shadow being its primary tools. This style was described as a more emotive and dramatic style intended to appeal to the senses. Curving shapes such as ovals, as well as concave and convex forms that indicate motion, are common in Baroque architecture. Another important component of this style is distortion, which includes figures that have been shattered, stretched, or altered to make them stand out.

The Palace of Versailles in France, St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, St. Peter’s Square in Vatican City, and Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna are all examples of Baroque architecture.

Palace of Versailles, France.

Architects: Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin Mansart, and Charles Le Brun.

Construction Started: 1661

 

2. Gothic

Gothic architecture reigned for hundreds of years, originated in France, and spread throughout the continent. Sharply pointed arches, ribbed and vaulted columns and flying buttresses are the three main characteristics of this architectural style.

The Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, is one of the most well-known specimens of French Gothic architecture. Canterbury Cathedral in England, Cologne Cathedral in Germany, Milan Cathedral in Italy, and St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome are all examples of cathedrals. Denis in Paris and Salisbury Cathedral in England are further notable examples of Gothic architecture.

Milan Cathedral, Italy.

Architect: 78 architects including Donato Bramante and Giovanni Antonio Amadeo.

Construction Started: 1386

 

3. Victorian

This architectural style refers to structures built during the reign of Queen Victoria of England. Unlike other forms, Victorian architecture is not restricted to a specific design but refers to the resurgence of Gothic, Romanesque, and Tudor features. During the industrial revolution, the Victorian style was applied to residential housing designs. It was used in many residences in the UK, the US, and Australia. The “dollhouse” appearance with ornate trimmings, vibrant colors, and asymmetrical forms is a feature shared by most Victorian houses.

The Palace of Westminster and Royal Albert Hall in London, Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, Balmoral Castle in Scotland, and Postcard Row in San Francisco, California are some of the most notable Victorian structures.

Palace of Westminister, London.

Architect: Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

Construction Started: 1016

 

4. Classic

Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC, Classical architecture was built in Ancient Greece. It is most renowned for its massive stone religious structures that were created using concepts of order, symmetry, geometry, and perspective.

The principles of the “architectural orders”: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian are remarkable features of their expressiveness. The Parthenon is the most important work of Classical architecture. The Parthenon, which was erected in the 5th century BC on Athens’ Acropolis, has notable features: a volume built atop a foundation that supports the sequence of columns and capitals, which in turn support a pediment.

There are many examples of classical architecture, such as Athens’ Acropolis and Rome’s Colosseum.

Pantheon, Greece.

Architect: Iktinos, Callicrates.

Construction Started: 447 BC

 

5. Romanesque

This architectural style, which flourished in Europe during the sixth and ninth centuries, bears a strong resemblance to its historical setting. Buildings inspired by the Republic of Ancient Rome were characterized by strong and robust walls and few apertures in semicircular arches during a period when European countries were at war and worried about invaders.

Its primary examples were the cathedrals erected during this time, with the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral in Spain being one of its most notable works. It was constructed during the Crusades and is the most notable example of Romanesque architecture.

Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, Spain.

Architects: Bernard the Elder, Robertus Galperinus, and Bernard the Younger, Maestro Esteban.

Construction Started:

 

6. Neoclassical

Neoclassical architecture, as the name implies, is a revival of Classical architecture. The design is evocative of Greek and Roman forms. As a result, buildings from the 18th century resembled Greek and Roman temples.

Clean, graceful lines, an uncluttered look, free-standing columns, and enormous structures characterize Neoclassical architecture. The Bank of England in Liverpool, the White House in the United States, and the General Post Office in Dublin are some of the most well-known examples.

The Bank of England, UK.

Architect: Sir John Soane RA FSA.

Construction Started: 1694

 

7. Modern

This architectural style is an umbrella name for numerous distinct styles that emerged in the first half of the twentieth century. This is a minimalist style that was popular among architects until after World War II. On the other hand, modernist design stresses utility above beauty by emphasizing simple forms, clear structures, and advances in metals, glass, and concrete contributed to the success of this design as During this time, Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier, two of the most famous architects of the twentieth century, prospered.

Some of the most famous examples of Modern architecture are Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater home in the United States, Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye in France, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin.

Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.

Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Construction Started: 1968

 

8. Postmodern

In the 1960s, Post-Modernist architects created this architectural trend in response to the austerity and rigidity espoused by Modern architecture. Post-modern designs, in a contrast to modernist forms, integrated artistic embellishment and ornamental features onto the building’s façade.

Since the Post-modernist style refused to be pigeonholed into a single architectural style, designs frequently took inspiration from a variety of architectural forms. This mix frequently resulted in a rather hybrid and quirky style for certain structures.

Robvert Venturi’s Vanna Venturi House in Pennsylvania, USA, was one of the earliest significant constructions of the post-modern architecture movement. The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, and the Dancing House in Prague, both built by architect Frank Gehry, are additional prominent examples.

Vanna Venturi House, Pennsylvania.

Architect: Robert Venturi

Construction Started: 1959

 

9. Neofuturist

Neofuturism is an architectural style that is viewed as having a more utopian view of the future. The designs are progressively utilizing new technology to create seemingly impossible shapes and creative structures that have never been done before. As the name suggests, neo-futurist architecture is characterized by buildings that appear to defy the laws of physics.

Zaha Hadid, a groundbreaking Iraqi-British architect, is one of the most well-known Neofuturist architects being the first female architect to be awarded the Pritzker Prize in Architecture in 2004. She was also a two-time Riba Stirling Prize winner, the UK’s most prestigious architecture prize.

Her unique projects such as the New Riverside Museum in Glasgow, the Serpentine Sackler Gallery in Hyde Park, the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Stadium in Japan, the 2022 FIFA World Cup Stadium in Qatar, and the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre in Azerbaijan.

FIFA World Cup Stadium, Qatar.

Architect: Zaha Hadid.

Year: 2019

 

10. Bauhaus

Bauhaus was founded in the early twentieth century at the world’s first design school. It was entrenched in a discourse in Germany that ranged from furniture design to plastic arts and the avant-garde stance. The connection between industrial production and product design was essential to the school’s architectural concepts, which took a highly rationalized approach to the design process. Walter Gropius, one of its creators, established new teaching techniques and utilized these concepts in his modern and useful work.

This type of notion seeks to combine utilitarian design and great arts, particularly sculpture and painting. The use of a restricted number of clean hues is a distinguishing element of the Bauhaus style. They are predominantly white, black, and grey in color. The precise, geometrical, and functional values of the home are more important than anything else.

Avraham Soskin House, Israel.

Architect: Zeev Rechter.

Year: 1933

 

11. Deconstructivism

Deconstructivism emerged in the 1980s and challenged the rules and processes of design while incorporating nonlinear dynamics into the field’s logic. Deconstructivism refers to two primary concepts: deconstruction, a literary and philosophical study that rethinks and deconstructs old patterns of thought, and constructivism, an artistic and architectural Russian movement from the early twentieth century.

Phillip Johnson’s 1988 MoMA show was a watershed moment for Deconstructivism. It included works by Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, Bernard Tschumi, and Wolf Prix.

Royal Ontario Museum, Canada.

Architect: Daniel Libeskind, John A. Pearson,  Frank Darling.

Construction Started: 1910